# calculation

 Numbers 0 to 9 Enter digits 0 to 9 • Decimal point European users can use comma ( , ). : Time separator For 3 hours 45 minutes, enter 3:45 & Fractional ‘And’For 1 ⅔, enter 1 & 2 / 3 % Percentage K 1000For example, enter 5K for 5000 E Exponential notation when pressed after a number otherwiseEuler’s number, e 2.71828…
 Basics + Add – Subtract * or X Multiply / Divide ↩ Calculate ( or [ Left Parenthesis ) or ] Right Parenthesis ? The Unknown For solving arithmetic or algebra equation. To solve:  3 x – 16 = 5 Enter:  3 ? – 16 = 5 Answer:  ? = 7
 Result R Resultfrom the last calculation ⌘ = Calculate While TypingShows you the result while you typing ⌘ – Switch the sign of the result ⇧⌘ – Complex conjugation of the result ⌘ ' Invert the result ⌘ : Change the result to time ⌘ % Change the result to percent
 Memory = Set the memory e.g. m = 55 A Insert memory ‘a’ A  A Insert memory ‘a2’ B Insert memory ‘b’ B  B Insert memory ‘b2’ M Insert memory ‘m’ M  M Insert memory ‘m2’ N Insert memory ‘n’ N  N Insert memory ‘n2’
 Tax V Insert tax You can press V repeatedly to cyclethrough various rates. You can use T instead of V: Go to Preferences > Shortcuts. ⇧ i Indicate a value is inclusive of tax. You can use i instead of ⇧ i by making the inclusive button ‘inc’ as the default. Learn more
 Exponents ^ or Y x y Power ⇧ Y x1/y Inverse Power Z x 2 Square ⇧ Z x 3 Cube J √ Square Root ⇧ J n√ N-th Root ' (single quote) x –1 Inverse E ex e to the power ⇧ E 10x 10 to the power 2x — press and hold ex button. L loge Natural Logarithm ⇧ L log10 Base 10 Logarithm log2 — press and hold log button. ! Factorial
 Angles ⌥⌘ R Switch between degrees and radians P π Pi,  3.14159… H Hypotenuse ⊿ e.g.  3⊿4 = 5 ⇧ H Adjacent ⩘ e.g.  5⩘4 = 3
 Trigonometry S sin Cosine C cos Cosine T tan Tangent ⇧ S sin⁻¹ Arcsine ⇧ C cos⁻¹ Arccosine ⇧ T tan⁻¹ Arctangent Tip Cool way to inverse: sin–1 is made of sin and –1 (inverse) You can press S then ' (single quote).
 Hyperbolic Functions H HyperbolicPress H after sin, cos, or tan. sinh SH cosh CH tanh TH Use ' (single quote) for inverse –1. sinh⁻¹ SH' cosh⁻¹ CH' tanh⁻¹ TH'
 Complex Numbers i Imaginary unit i < Polar Enter complex number in r ∠ θ ⌥⌘ P Display complex result in polar format Note: You can find absolute value, argument, real, and imaginary parts under Extra Functions
 Bitwise Operators & Bitwise And | Bitwise Or ^ Bitwise Exclusive Or ` Bitwise Nor ! Bitwise Not Note: The above shortcuts are only available in binary, octal, and hexadecimal.
 Extra Functions F1 + F2 You can pick a function for these buttons. Functions such as: Modulo Percent Change Rounding Combinations Permutations and many more… ⇧⌘ F Show Function Browserwhere you can customize F1 and F2. F or F1 Insert F1 function. G or F2 Insert F2 function. F and G are the preferred shortcuts because F1 and F2 could be used by OS X or some other apps.